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Trade And Employment In Asia

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Trade and Employment in Asia

Trade and Employment in Asia Book
Author : Niny Khor,Devashish Mitra
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2013-07-31
ISBN : 1135945543
File Size : 41,6 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Book Summary :

This volume investigates the links between employment, trade and structural transformation. In the context of global rebalancing, accompanied by inevitable changes in trade patterns between Asia and the rest of the world, the volume’s chapters analyze the links between trade openness and trends in employment and its quality. Specifically, through Asian case studies (both analytical and econometric), the volume examines how trade and export-led growth models have led to specialization and evolving demands on various types of labor. The rapidly changing labor market contours in developing Asia during this era of globalization, along with the new context resulting from the recent global financial crisis and new insights from theoretical literature, have led to the need for such studies. This volume helps fill this gap in the literature.

Stitches to Riches

Stitches to Riches  Book
Author : Gladys Lopez-Acevedo,Raymond Robertson
Publisher : World Bank Publications
Release : 2016-03-28
ISBN : 1464808147
File Size : 24,5 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Book Summary :

South Asia is in the midst of a demographic transition. For the next three decades, the growth of the region’s working age population will far outpace the growth of dependents. Close to one million individuals will enter the workforce every month. This large, economically active population can increase the region’s capacity to save and make crucial investments in physical capital, job training, and technological advancement. But for South Asia to realize these dividends, it must ensure that its working-age population is productively employed. As one of the most prominent labor-intensive industries in developing countries, apparel manufacturing is a prime contender. With around 4.7 million workers in the formal sector and another estimated 20.3 million informally employed (combined with textiles), apparel already constitutes close to 40 percent of manufacturing employment. And given that much of apparel production continues to be labor-intensive, the potential to create more and better jobs is immense. There is a huge window of opportunity now for South Asia, given that China, the dominant producer for the last ten years, has started to cede some ground due to higher wages. But the region faces strong competition from East Asia—with Cambodia, Indonesia, and Vietnam already pulling ahead. Plus the sector suffers from production inefficiencies and policy bottlenecks that have prevented it from achieving its potential. Against this backdrop, this report hopes to inform the debate by measuring the employment gains that the four most populous countries in South Asia—Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka (hereafter `SAR countries’)—can expect in this new environment of increased competition and scrutiny. Its main message is that it is important for South Asian economies to remove existing impediments and facilitate growth in apparel to capture more production and create more employment as wages rise in China. The successful manufacturers will be those who can supply a wide range of quality products to buyers rapidly and reliably—not just offer low costs.

Exports to Jobs

Exports to Jobs Book
Author : Erhan Artuc,Gladys Lopez-Acevedo,Raymond Robertson,Daniel Samaan
Publisher : World Bank Publications
Release : 2019-02-25
ISBN : 1464812497
File Size : 45,8 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Book Summary :

South Asia has grown rapidly with significant reductions in poverty, but it has not been able to match the fast-growing working age population, leading to lingering concerns about jobless growth and poor job quality. Could export growth in South Asia result in better labor market outcomes? The answer is yes, according to our study, which rigorously estimates—using a new methodology—the potential impact from higher South Asian exports per worker on wages and employment over a 10-year period. Our study shows the positive side of trade. It finds that increasing exports per worker would result in higher wages—mainly for better-off groups, like more educated workers, males, and more-experienced workers—although less-skilled workers would see the largest reduction in informality. How can the benefits be spread more widely? Our study suggests that scaling up exports in labor-intensive industries could significantly lower informality for groups like rural and less-educated workers in the region. Also, increasing skills, and participation of women and young workers in the labor force could make an even bigger dent in informal employment. The region could achieve these gains by: (i) boosting and connecting exports to people (e.g., removing trade barriers and investment in infrastructure); (ii) eliminating distortions in production (e.g., by more efficient allocation of inputs); and (iii) protecting workers (e.g., by investing in education and skills).

Trade Unions and Labour Movements in the Asia Pacific Region

Trade Unions and Labour Movements in the Asia Pacific Region Book
Author : Byoung-Hoon Lee,Ng Sek-Hong,Russell D Lansbury
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2019-09-16
ISBN : 0429576080
File Size : 24,9 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Book Summary :

Recent developments in the world economy, including deindustrialisation and the digital revolution, have led to an increasingly individualistic relationship between workers and employers, which in turn has weakened labour movements and worker representation. However, this process is not universal, including in some countries of Asia, where trade unions are closely aligned with the interests of the dominant political party and the state. This book considers the many challenges facing trade unions and worker representation in a wide range of Asian countries. For each country, full background is given on how trade unions and other forms of worker representation have arisen. Key questions then considered include the challenges facing trade unions and worker representation in each country, the extent to which these are a result of global or local developments and the actions being taken by trade unions and worker representative bodies to cope with the challenges.

Trade and Employment in Asia and the Pacific

Trade and Employment in Asia and the Pacific Book
Author : Narongchai ʻAkkharasēranī
Publisher : University of Hawaii Press
Release : 1977
ISBN : 0987650XXX
File Size : 49,7 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Book Summary :

Download Trade and Employment in Asia and the Pacific book written by Narongchai ʻAkkharasēranī and published by University of Hawaii Press with total hardcover pages 476 . Available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, read book directly with any devices anywhere and anytime.

World Trade Evolution

World Trade Evolution Book
Author : Lili Yan Ing,Miaojie Yu
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2018-10-08
ISBN : 1351061526
File Size : 35,6 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Book Summary :

The book provides theoretical and empirical evidence on how world trade evolves, how trade affects resource allocation, how trade competition affects productivity, how China shock affects world trade and how trade affects large and small countries. It is a useful reference which focuses on new approaches to international trade by looking into country-specific as well as firm-product level-specific cases.

Policy Priorities for International Trade and Jobs

Policy Priorities for International Trade and Jobs Book
Author : OECD
Publisher : OECD Publishing
Release : 2012-05-23
ISBN : 9264180176
File Size : 25,8 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Book Summary :

Launched and co-ordinated by the OECD, the International Collaborative Initiative on Trade and Employment (ICITE) is a two-year old joint undertaking of ten international organisations. This book brings together some of the results of ICITE's research.

East Asia Pacific at Work

East Asia Pacific at Work Book
Author : Truman G. Packard,Trang Van Nguyen
Publisher : World Bank Publications
Release : 2014-05-07
ISBN : 1464800049
File Size : 52,9 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Book Summary :

The unprecedented progress of East Asia Pacific is a triumph of working people. Countries that were low-income a generation ago successfully integrated into the global value chain, exploiting their labor-cost advantage. In 1990, the region held about a third of the world’s labor force. Leveraging this comparative advantage, the share of global GDP of emerging economies in East Asia Pacific grew from 7 percent in 1992 to 17 percent in 2011. Yet, the region now finds itself at a critical juncture. Work and its contribution to growth and well-being can no longer be taken for granted. The challenges range from high youth inactivity and rising inequality to binding skills shortages. A key underlying issue is economic informality, which constrains innovation and productivity, limits the tax base, and increases household vulnerability to shocks. Informality is both a consequence of stringent labor regulations and limited enforcement capacity. In several countries, de jure employment regulations are more stringent than in many parts of Europe. Even labor regulations set at reasonable levels but poorly implemented can aggravate the market failures they were designed to overcome. This report argues that the appropriate policy responses are to ensure macroeconomic stability, and in particular, a regulatory framework that encourages small- and medium-sized enterprises where most people in the region work. Mainly agrarian countries should focus on raising agricultural productivity. In urbanizing countries, good urban planning becomes critical. Pacific island countries will need to provide youth with human capital needed to succeed abroad as migrant workers. And, across the region, it is critical to ‘formalize’ more work, to increase the coverage of essential social protection, and to sustain productivity. To this end, policies should encourage mobility of labor and human capital, and not favor some forms of employment - for instance, full-time wage employment in manufacturing - over others, either implicitly or explicitly. Policies to increase growth and well-being from employment should instead reflect and support the dynamism and diversity of work forms across the region.