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Adhesion In Microelectronics

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Adhesion in Microelectronics

Adhesion in Microelectronics Book
Author : K. L. Mittal,Tanweer Ahsan
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2014-08-25
ISBN : 1118831349
File Size : 33,7 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Adhesion in Microelectronics Book PDF/Epub Download

This comprehensive book will provide both fundamental andapplied aspects of adhesion pertaining to microelectronics in asingle and easily accessible source. Among the topics to be coveredinclude; Various theories or mechanisms of adhesion Surface (physical or chemical) characterization of materials asit pertains to adhesion Surface cleaning as it pertains to adhesion Ways to improve adhesion Unraveling of interfacial interactions using an array ofpertinent techniques Characterization of interfaces / interphases Polymer-polymer adhesion Metal-polymer adhesion (metallized polymers) Polymer adhesion to various substrates Adhesion of thin films Adhesion of underfills Adhesion of molding compounds Adhesion of different dielectric materials Delamination and reliability issues in packaged devices Interface mechanics and crack propagation Adhesion measurement of thin films and coatings

Adhesion Measurement of Films Coatings

Adhesion Measurement of Films   Coatings Book
Author : K. L. Mittal
Publisher : VSP
Release : 2001
ISBN : 9789067643375
File Size : 43,5 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Adhesion Measurement of Films Coatings Book PDF/Epub Download

This book documents the proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Adhesion Measurement of Films and Coatings, held in Newark, NJ, October 25-27, 1999. Since the First Symposium (Boston 1992) there had been considerable activity in devising new, more reliable and more efficient ways to measure adhesion of films and coatings, which resulted in the decision to organize the Newark Symposium.Films and coatings are used for a variety of purposes – functional, decorative, protective, etc. – in a host of applications. Irrespective of the purpose or application of a film or a coating, their adequate adhesion to the underlying substrates is of paramount importance. Concomitantly, the need to develop techniques for quantitative assessment of adhesion of films and coatings is all too obvious.This volume contains a total of 20 papers, which have all been rigorously peer reviewed and suitably modified before inclusion. The topics include: measurement and analysis of interface adhesion; relative adhesion measurement for thin film structures; adhesion testing of hard coatings by a variety of techniques; challenges and new directions in scratch adhesion testing of coated substrates; application of scratch test to different films and coatings; evaluation of coating-substrate adhesion by indentation experiments; measurement of interfacial fracture energy in multifilm applications; laser induced decohesion spectroscopy (LIDS) for measuring adhesion; pulsed laser technique for assessment of adhesion; blade adhesion test; JKR adhesion test; coefficient of thermal expansion measurement; and residual stresses in diamond films.This volume, providing the latest information, will be of great value and interest to anyone working in the area of adhesion measurement of films and coatings.

Progress in Adhesion and Adhesives

Progress in Adhesion and Adhesives Book
Author : K. L. Mittal
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-06-23
ISBN : 1119407516
File Size : 54,9 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Progress in Adhesion and Adhesives Book PDF/Epub Download

With the ever-increasing amount of research being published it is a Herculean task to be fully conversant with the latest research developments in any field, and the arena of adhesion and adhesives is no exception. Thus, topical review articles provide an alternate and very efficient way to stay abreast of the state-of-the-art in may subjects representing the field of adhesion science and adheisves. Based on the success and the warm reception accorded to the premier volume in this series “Progress in Adhesion and Adhesives” (containing the review articles published in Volume 2 (2014) of the journal Reviews of Adhesion and Adhesives (RAA)), volume 2 comprises 14 review articles published in Volume 4 (2016) of RAA. The subjects of these 14 reviews fall into the following general areas: 1. Surface modification of polymers for a variety of purposes. 2. Adhesion aspects in reinforced composites 3. Thin films/coatings and their adhesion measurement 4. Bioadhesion and bio-implants 5. Adhesives and adhesive joints 6. General adhesion aspects The topics covered include: surface modification of natural fibers for reinforced polymer composites; adhesion of submicrometer thin metals films; surface treatments to modulate bioadhesion; hot-melt adhesives from renewable resources; particulate-polymer composites; functionally graded adhesively bonded joints; fabrication of nano-biodevices; effects of particulates on contact angles , thermal stresses in adhesively bonded joints and ways to mitigate these; laser-assisted electroless metallization of polymer materials; adhesion measurement of coatings on biodevices/implants; cyanoacrylate adhesives; and adhesion of green flame retardant coatings onto polyolefins.

Moisture Sensitivity of Plastic Packages of IC Devices

Moisture Sensitivity of Plastic Packages of IC Devices Book
Author : X.J. Fan,E. Suhir
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-07-23
ISBN : 1441957197
File Size : 42,5 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Moisture Sensitivity of Plastic Packages of IC Devices Book PDF/Epub Download

Moisture Sensitivity of Plastic Packages of IC Devices provides information on the state-of-the-art techniques and methodologies related to moisture issues in plastic packages. The most updated, in-depth and systematic technical and theoretical approaches are addressed in the book. Numerous industrial applications are provided, along with the results of the most recent research and development efforts, including, but not limited to: thorough exploration of moisture's effects based on lectures and tutorials by the authors, consistent focus on solution-based approaches and methodologies for improved reliability in plastic packaging, emerging theories and cutting-edge industiral applications presented by the leading professionals in the field. Moisture plays a key role in the reliability of plastic packages of IC devices, and moisture-induced failures have become an increasing concern with the development of advanced IC devices. This second volume in the Micro- and Opto-Electronic Materials, Structures, and Systems series is a must-read for researchers and engineers alike.

Mechanics of Microelectronics

Mechanics of Microelectronics Book
Author : G.Q. Zhang,W.D. van Driel,X.J. Fan
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2006-08-25
ISBN : 1402049358
File Size : 43,9 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Mechanics of Microelectronics Book PDF/Epub Download

This book is written by leading experts with both profound knowledge and rich practical experience in advanced mechanics and the microelectronics industry essential for current and future development. It aims to provide the cutting edge knowledge and solutions for various mechanical related problems, in a systematic way. It contains important and detailed information about the state-of-the-art theories, methodologies, the way of working and real case studies.

Microelectronics Packaging Handbook

Microelectronics Packaging Handbook Book
Author : R.R. Tummala,Eugene J. Rymaszewski,Alan G. Klopfenstein
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-11-27
ISBN : 1461560373
File Size : 27,9 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Microelectronics Packaging Handbook Book PDF/Epub Download

Electronics has become the largest industry, surpassing agriculture, auto, and heavy metal industries. It has become the industry of choice for a country to prosper, already having given rise to the phenomenal prosperity of Japan, Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, and Ireland among others. At the current growth rate, total worldwide semiconductor sales will reach $300B by the year 2000. The key electronic technologies responsible for the growth of the industry include semiconductors, the packaging of semiconductors for systems use in auto, telecom, computer, consumer, aerospace, and medical industries, displays, magnetic, and optical storage as well as software and system technologies. There has been a paradigm shift, however, in these technologies, from mainframe and supercomputer applications at any cost, to consumer applications at approximately one-tenth the cost and size. Personal computers are a good example, going from $500IMIP when products were first introduced in 1981, to a projected $IIMIP within 10 years. Thin, light portable, user friendly and very low-cost are, therefore, the attributes of tomorrow's computing and communications systems. Electronic packaging is defined as interconnection, powering, cool ing, and protecting semiconductor chips for reliable systems. It is a key enabling technology achieving the requirements for reducing the size and cost at the system and product level.

Die Attach Materials for High Temperature Applications in Microelectronics Packaging

Die Attach Materials for High Temperature Applications in Microelectronics Packaging Book
Author : Kim S. Siow
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-01-29
ISBN : 3319992562
File Size : 29,7 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Die Attach Materials for High Temperature Applications in Microelectronics Packaging Book PDF/Epub Download

This book presents the scientific principles, processing conditions, probable failure mechanisms, and a description of reliability performance and equipment required for implementing high-temperature and lead-free die attach materials. In particular, it addresses the use of solder alloys, silver and copper sintering, and transient liquid-phase sintering. While different solder alloys have been used widely in the microelectronics industry, the implementation of sintering silver and transient liquid-phase sintering remains limited to a handful of companies. Hence, the book devotes many chapters to sintering technologies, while simultaneously providing only a cursory coverage of the more widespread techniques employing solder alloys. Addresses the differences between sintering and soldering (the current die-attach technologies), thereby comprehensively addressing principles, methods, and performance of these high-temperature die-attach materials; Emphasizes the industrial perspective, with chapters written by engineers who have hands-on experience using these technologies; Baker Hughes, Bosch and ON Semiconductor, are represented as well as materials suppliers such as Indium; Simultaneously provides the detailed science underlying these technologies by leading academic researchers in the field.

Reliability of Organic Compounds in Microelectronics and Optoelectronics

Reliability of Organic Compounds in Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Book
Author : Willem Dirk van Driel,Maryam Yazdan Mehr
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2022
ISBN : 3030815765
File Size : 40,9 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Reliability of Organic Compounds in Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Book PDF/Epub Download

This book aims to provide a comprehensive reference into the critical subject of failure and degradation in organic materials, used in optoelectronics and microelectronics systems and devices. Readers in different industrial sectors, including microelectronics, automotive, lighting, oil/gas, and petrochemical will benefit from this book. Several case studies and examples are discussed, which readers will find useful to assess and mitigate similar failure cases. More importantly, this book presents methodologies and useful approaches in analyzing a failure and in relating a failure to the reliability of materials and systems. Presents methodologies for analysing the reliability, failure, and degradation of different organic materials, used in optoelectronics and microelectronics; Provides an overview of different failure mechanisms in different organic materials; Explains how to correlate product performance and reliability to materials degradation; Provides an overview of simulation techniques and methodologies to predict lifetime and reliability of engineering materials and components; Integrates several degradation causes in different materials (thermal, moisture, light radiation, mechanical damage, and more) into large-scale system solutions in several industrial domains (lighting, automotive, oil/gas, and transport and more); Includes case studies from different failure/degradation mechanisms in different industrial sectors.

Dielectric Films for Advanced Microelectronics

Dielectric Films for Advanced Microelectronics Book
Author : Mikhail Baklanov,Karen Maex,Martin Green
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2007-04-04
ISBN : 0470065419
File Size : 32,6 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Dielectric Films for Advanced Microelectronics Book PDF/Epub Download

The topic of thin films is an area of increasing importance in materials science, electrical engineering and applied solid state physics; with both research and industrial applications in microelectronics, computer manufacturing, and physical devices. Advanced, high-performance computers, high-definition TV, broadband imaging systems, flat-panel displays, robotic systems, and medical electronics and diagnostics are a few examples of the miniaturized device technologies that depend on the utilization of thin film materials. This book presents an in-depth overview of the novel developments made by the scientific leaders in the area of modern dielectric films for advanced microelectronic applications. It contains clear, concise explanations of material science of dielectric films and their problem for device operation, including high-k, low-k, medium-k dielectric films and also specific features and requirements for dielectric films used in the packaging technology. A broad range of related topics are covered, from physical principles to design, fabrication, characterization, and applications of novel dielectric films.

Microelectronics and Microsystems Packaging

Microelectronics and Microsystems Packaging Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2001
ISBN : 0987650XXX
File Size : 21,9 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Microelectronics and Microsystems Packaging Book PDF/Epub Download

Download Microelectronics and Microsystems Packaging book written by and published by with total hardcover pages 186 . Available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, read book directly with any devices anywhere and anytime.

Adhesive Bonding

Adhesive Bonding Book
Author : R D Adams
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2005-03-08
ISBN : 1845690753
File Size : 26,9 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Adhesive Bonding Book PDF/Epub Download

This important collection reviews key research on adhesive behaviour and applications in sectors as diverse as construction and automotive engineering. The book is divided into three main parts: fundamentals, mechanical properties and applications. Part one focuses on the basic properties of adhesives, surface assessment and treatment. Part two concentrates on understanding how adhesives perform under stress and the factors affecting fatigue and failure. The final part of the book reviews industry specific applications in areas such as building and construction, transport and electrical engineering. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Adhesive bonding is a standard reference for all those concerned with the industrial application of adhesives. Essential information for all those concerned with the industrial application of adhesives This important collection examines adhesives and adhesive bonding for load-bearing applications Arranged in a user-friendly format with three main sections: fundamentals, generic uses and industry specific applications

Proceedings 1999 International Symposium on Microelectronics

Proceedings 1999 International Symposium on Microelectronics Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1999
ISBN : 0987650XXX
File Size : 33,8 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Proceedings 1999 International Symposium on Microelectronics Book PDF/Epub Download

This text comprises the proceedings of the 1999 International Symposium on Microelectronics.

Proceedings of the International Symposium on Microelectronics

Proceedings of the     International Symposium on Microelectronics Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1999
ISBN : 0987650XXX
File Size : 37,7 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Proceedings of the International Symposium on Microelectronics Book PDF/Epub Download

Download Proceedings of the International Symposium on Microelectronics book written by and published by with total hardcover pages 848 . Available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, read book directly with any devices anywhere and anytime.

Microelectronics Failure Analysis

Microelectronics Failure Analysis Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : ASM International
Release : 2004-01-01
ISBN : 0871708043
File Size : 55,6 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Microelectronics Failure Analysis Book PDF/Epub Download

For newcomers cast into the waters to sink or swim as well as seasoned professionals who want authoritative guidance desk-side, this hefty volume updates the previous (1999) edition. It contains the work of expert contributors who rallied to the job in response to a committee's call for help (the committee was assigned to the update by the Electron

Microelectronic Packaging

Microelectronic Packaging Book
Author : M. Datta,Tetsuya Osaka,J. Walter Schultze
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2004-12-20
ISBN : 020347368X
File Size : 26,5 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Microelectronic Packaging Book PDF/Epub Download

Microelectronic Packaging analyzes the massive impact of electrochemical technologies on various levels of microelectronic packaging. Traditionally, interconnections within a chip were considered outside the realm of packaging technologies, but this book emphasizes the importance of chip wiring as a key aspect of microelectronic packaging, and focuses on electrochemical processing as an enabler of advanced chip metallization. Divided into five parts, the book begins by outlining the basics of electrochemical processing, defining the microelectronic packaging hierarchy, and emphasizing the impact of electrochemical technology on packaging. The second part discusses chip metallization topics including the development of robust barrier layers and alternative metallization materials. Part III explores key aspects of chip-package interconnect technologies, followed by Part IV's analysis of packages, boards, and connectors which covers materials development, technology trends in ceramic packages and multi-chip modules, and electroplated contact materials. Illustrating the importance of processing tools in enabling technology development, the book concludes with chapters on chemical mechanical planarization, electroplating, and wet etching/cleaning tools. Experts from industry, universities, and national laboratories submitted reviews on each of these subjects, capturing the technological advances made in each area. A detailed examination of how packaging responds to the challenges of Moore's law, this book serves as a timely and valuable reference for microelectronic packaging and processing professionals and other industrial technologists.

Quality Conformance and Qualification of Microelectronic Packages and Interconnects

Quality Conformance and Qualification of Microelectronic Packages and Interconnects Book
Author : Michael Pecht,Abhijit Dasgupta,John W. Evans,Jillian Y. Evans
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 1994-12-13
ISBN : 9780471594369
File Size : 39,5 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Quality Conformance and Qualification of Microelectronic Packages and Interconnects Book PDF/Epub Download

All packaging engineers and technologists who want to ensure thatthey give their customers the highest quality, most cost-effectiveproducts should know that the paradigm has shifted. It has shiftedaway from the MIL-STDs and other government standards and testprocedures that don't cost-effectively address potential failuremechanisms or the manufacturing processes of the product. It hasshifted decisively towards tackling the root causes of failure andthe appropriate implementation of cost-effective process controls,qualityscreens, and tests. This book's groundbreaking, science-based approach to developingqualification and quality assurance programs helps engineers reacha new level of reliability in today's high-performancemicroelectronics. It does this with powerful... * Techniques for identifying and modeling failure mechanismsearlier in the design cycle, breaking the need to rely on fielddata * Physics-of-failure product reliability assessment methods thatcan be proactively implemented throughout the design andmanufacture of the product * Process controls that decrease variabilities in the end productand reduce end-of-line screening and testing A wide range of microelectronic package and interconnectconfigurations for both single-and multi-chip modules is examined,including chip and wire-bonds, tape-automated (TAB), flip-TAB,flip-chip bonds, high-density interconnects, chip-on-board designs(COB), MCM, 3-D stack, and many more. The remaining packageelements, such as die attachment, case and lid, leads, and lid andlead seals are also discussed in detail. The product of a distinguished team of authors and editors, thisbook's guidelines for avoiding potential high-risk manufacturingand qualification problems, as well as for implementing ongoingquality assurance, are sure to prove invaluable to both studentsand practicing professionals. For the professional engineer involved in the design andmanufacture of products containing electronic components, here is acomprehensive handbook to the theory and methods surrounding theassembly of microelectronic and electronic components. The bookfocuses on computers and consumer electronic products with internalsubsystems that reflect mechanical design constraints, costlimitations, and aesthetic and ergonomic concerns. Taking a totalsystem approach to packaging, the book systematically examines:basic chip and computer architecture; design and layout;interassembly and interconnections; cooling scheme; materialsselection, including ceramics, glasses, and metals; stress,vibration, and acoustics; and manufacturing and assemblytechnology. 1994 (0-471-53299-1) 800 pp. INTEGRATED CIRCUIT, HYBRID, AND MULTICHIP MODULE PACKAGE DESIGNGUIDELINES: A Focus on Reliability --Michael Pecht This comprehensive guide features a uniquely organized time-phasedapproach to design, development, qualification, manufacture, andin-service management. It provides step-by-step instructions on howto define realistic system requirements, define the system usageenvironment, identify potential failure modes, characterizematerials and processes by the key control label factors, and useexperiment, step-stress, and accelerated methods to ensure optimumdesign before production begins. Topics covered include: detaileddesign guidelines for substrate...wire and wire, tape automated,and flip-chip bonding...element attachment and case, lead, lead andlid seals--incorporating dimensional and geometric configurationsof package elements, manufacturing and assembly conditions,materials selection, and loading conditions. 1993 (0-471-59446-6)454 pp.

Polyimides

Polyimides Book
Author : Malay Ghosh
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-02-06
ISBN : 1351423657
File Size : 49,9 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Polyimides Book PDF/Epub Download

Provides coverage on the full range of topics associated with polyimides, including structure, polymer fundamentals, and product areas. The text addresses both basic and applied aspects of the subject. It details the synthesis of polyimides, polyamideimides, and flourinated polyimides, explains the molecular design of photosensitive polyimides, and more.

Proceedings of the 1990 International Symposium on Microelectronics October 15 17 1990 McCormick Place North Chicago Illinois

Proceedings of the 1990 International Symposium on Microelectronics  October 15 17  1990  McCormick Place North  Chicago  Illinois Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1990
ISBN : 0987650XXX
File Size : 48,7 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Proceedings of the 1990 International Symposium on Microelectronics October 15 17 1990 McCormick Place North Chicago Illinois Book PDF/Epub Download

Download Proceedings of the 1990 International Symposium on Microelectronics October 15 17 1990 McCormick Place North Chicago Illinois book written by and published by with total hardcover pages 820 . Available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, read book directly with any devices anywhere and anytime.

Advanced Adhesives in Electronics

Advanced Adhesives in Electronics Book
Author : M O Alam,C Bailey
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2011-05-25
ISBN : 0857092898
File Size : 47,9 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Advanced Adhesives in Electronics Book PDF/Epub Download

Adhesives for electronic applications serve important functional and structural purposes in electronic components and packaging, and have developed significantly over the last few decades. Advanced adhesives in electronics reviews recent developments in adhesive joining technology, processing and properties. The book opens with an introduction to adhesive joining technology for electronics. Part one goes on to cover different types of adhesive used in electronic systems, including thermally conductive adhesives, isotropic and anisotropic conductive adhesives and underfill adhesives for flip-chip applications. Part two focuses on the properties and processing of electronic adhesives, with chapters covering the structural integrity of metal-polymer adhesive interfaces, modelling techniques used to assess adhesive properties and adhesive technology for photonics. With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Advanced adhesives in electronics is a standard reference for materials scientists, engineers and chemists using adhesives in electronics, as well as those with an academic research interest in the field. Reviews recent developments in adhesive joining technology, processing and properties featuring flip-chip applications Provides a comprehensive overview of adhesive joining technology for electronics including different types of adhesives used in electronic systems Focuses on the properties and processing of electronic adhesives, with chapters covering the structural integrity of metal-polymer adhesive interfaces and modelling techniques

First International Congress on Adhesion Science And Technology invited Papers

First International Congress on Adhesion Science And Technology   invited Papers Book
Author : W. J. Van Ooij
Publisher : VSP
Release : 1998-12
ISBN : 9789067642910
File Size : 52,6 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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First International Congress on Adhesion Science And Technology invited Papers Book PDF/Epub Download

This Festschrift documents the Proceedings of the First International Congress on Adhesion Science and Technology, held in honor of Dr. Kash Mittal on the occasion of his 50 birthday, in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, October 16-20, 1995. It contains the full accounts of the plenary and invited lectures, which are divided into the following seven parts: Part 1: Fundamental aspects of adhesion and general topics; Part 2: Contact angle, wettability and surface energetics; Part 3: Surface modification: Relevance to adhesion; Part 4: Adhesives and adhesive joints; Part 5: Adhesion aspects of polymeric coatings, and polymer-polymer interphase; Part 6: Metal-polymer and metal-ceramic adhesion; and Part 7: General papers. The topics covered include many different aspects of adhesion science and technology, and both fundamental and applied issues are addressed. The final section of this volume gives a listing of titles, authors and affiliations of the other 185 papers which were included in the technical program of the conference.

Influence of Temperature on Microelectronics and System Reliability

Influence of Temperature on Microelectronics and System Reliability Book
Author : Pradeep Lall,Michael G. Pecht,Edward B. Hakim
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-07-09
ISBN : 0429605595
File Size : 42,6 Mb
Language : En, Es, Fr and De

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Influence of Temperature on Microelectronics and System Reliability Book PDF/Epub Download

This book raises the level of understanding of thermal design criteria. It provides the design team with sufficient knowledge to help them evaluate device architecture trade-offs and the effects of operating temperatures. The author provides readers a sound scientific basis for system operation at realistic steady state temperatures without reliability penalties. Higher temperature performance than is commonly recommended is shown to be cost effective in production for life cycle costs. The microelectronic package considered in the book is assumed to consist of a semiconductor device with first-level interconnects that may be wirebonds, flip-chip, or tape automated bonds; die attach; substrate; substrate attach; case; lid; lid seal; and lead seal. The temperature effects on electrical parameters of both bipolar and MOSFET devices are discussed, and models quantifying the temperature effects on package elements are identified. Temperature-related models have been used to derive derating criteria for determining the maximum and minimum allowable temperature stresses for a given microelectronic package architecture. The first chapter outlines problems with some of the current modeling strategies. The next two chapters present microelectronic device failure mechanisms in terms of their dependence on steady state temperature, temperature cycle, temperature gradient, and rate of change of temperature at the chip and package level. Physics-of-failure based models used to characterize these failure mechanisms are identified and the variabilities in temperature dependence of each of the failure mechanisms are characterized. Chapters 4 and 5 describe the effects of temperature on the performance characteristics of MOS and bipolar devices. Chapter 6 discusses using high-temperature stress screens, including burn-in, for high-reliability applications. The burn-in conditions used by some manufacturers are examined and a physics-of-failure approach is described. The